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On the pre-Hispanic period, Puno was the settlement place of different human groups, who will finish being part of the first settlement of the Pucará culture. During this period, there were built big constructions of pyramidal shape. This kind of monumental architecture was peculiar of the Pucará and Tiahuanaco cultures, which also shared the territory. With the disappearance of the Tiahuanaco, during the 12th and 13th centuries, different kingdoms were born: Kollas, Lupacas and Pacajes.When the colonial period started, on the 15th century, Puno started its transformation into a inhabited center of commercial exchange, that little by little would be enriched with the multiculturalism of its visitors. This growth continued until half the 18th century, because Puno had taken relevance for being a mining settlement and a crossing territory between the most important cities of the region. In 1776 Puno ended being part of the viceroyalty of Peru, starting to being part of the viceroyalty of Río de la Plata, although it integrated again to Peru in 1796.On the Republic period, on the 19th century, the population of Puno was over the 6000 residents and the commercial development turned around different activities, as the agriculture and the textile, between other new industries. The University San Carlos de Puno was also founded, what motivated a bigger development of the culture, what favoured the new urban configuration that the city was taking.Nowadays Puno is a relevant city for the economic growth of the country, besides being considered the cultural capital of Peru. The tourism has grown quite a lot the last years, motivating the construction of an adequate infrastructure to receive the new visitors that each year come to 300.000 people.
On the Early Horizon period of Peru, the region was controlled by the Pucara culture and on the Medium Horizon by the Tiahuanaco culture. In 1540 the Spanish arrived looking for new lands to settle and it was in 1541 that Moquegua was founded, at the same time than the Ilo harbor.Moquegua standed out in the fight to acquire the independence, reason why on January the 9th 1823 acquired the title of city. Moquegua was part of the independence of Arequipa and then part of the 7 provinces of the department, a position that the city conserved until the decade of 1830.