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The high plain territory where is located the current Juliaca -also known as the “city of winds”- is rich in history and traditions. It was settled more than 4000 years B.C. by tribes mostly dedicated to agriculture and Andean stockbreeding (llama shepherding and guinea pig breeding).Between the years 200 B.C. and 200 A.D. the Pukara culture dominated the high plain region, leaving traces of its presence in Juliaca on the founded archaeologic remains. In the following centuries, the Tiahuanaco, Colla and Inka cultures fought for the hegemony of the high plain. The incas were the ones who prevailed over the other ones in the fight for the Andean supremacy, under the leadership of Pachacutec.With the Spanish arrival, there was a high plain lands distribution, that culminated with the Spanish foundation of the town of Santa Catalina de Juliaca. During the colonial period the city was scenary of indigenous uprisings against the Spanish domination.In the Republic period, after obtained the Independence of Peru, Juliaca was a rural city until the construction of the railway station (1873) that allowed a greater communication and exchange with the most important cities of the Andean south as Cusco or Arequipa, besides making easier the access of Peruvian and foreign visitors.In 1926 was created, by a supreme order, the province of San Roman, what allowed for the ascent of Juliaca to capital.
The first Hispanic settlements in Tacna date from 1572. In the pre-Columbian period, the territory was inhabited by different indigenous communities as the uros, lupacas and camanchacos, until the arrival of the inca Túpac Yupanqui, who conquered Tacna, adding the territory to the Incan Empire. During the colonial period there were indigenous uprisings that would cause the reduction of the population by the Spanish soldiers hands. After the independence in 1821, Tacna would be recognized as the “heroic city” for the role of the city and the locals in the achievement of the Peru’s independence. Inside the history, rich of historical events, Tacna passed from being a Peruvian city to taking part of the Chilean territory, as direct result of the Pacific War (war between Peru and Chile); at this war, part of Tacna had to be given. However, in 1929 Tacna joins again Peru, after more than 50 years being in possession of Chile. In Tacna took place the most important events of the 20th century as the “Tacnazo”, coup d’état where the military government of the president Juan Velasco Alvarado was overthrown.