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At the current territory of Nazca flowered on the 1st century A.D. the Nazca culture. The researches and exploration of places and remains left by this culture indicate that this would be a direct continuation of the Paracas culture. Unlike the Paracas, who developed until perfection the textile art, the Nazca were the masters of pottery, standing out also for the hydraulic engineering present in the aqueduct construction (which is still used nowadays) and the impressive geoglyphs, which are known as the Nazca Lines. Between 700 and 900 A.D. took place the decadence of the Nazca culture, due to natural reasons. In 1901, the German archaeolologist Max Uhle discovered the potter legacy of the Nazca, which dates from 200, 500 and 700 D.C. Subsequently, in 1939, the American Paul Kosok would discover, without plnanning it, the Nazca Lines, while he was overflying the desert where they are.
In 1850 occured at the coast of Punta de San Juan city (today Marcona) the accident of the first Peruvian steamboat BAP Rimac, in which hundreds of people died, being a survivor the writer Ricardo Palma.In 1870 the researcher Antonio Raimondi recognized that there were numerous iron deposits in the area, but it was in 1915 that the explorations started. In 1943 was created the Corporacion Peruana del Santa to take advantage of the resources of the area and years later there were international companies that joined, creating the first mining camp.During the government of Juan Velasco Alvarado the deposit that was used for 17 years was nationalized and from the first government of Alberto Fujimori the Corporacion Shougang de China is in charge of the area until nowadays.